Vaccination is one of the great public health achievements of human history. Vaccines used in national immunization programmes (NIPs) are considered safe and effective when used correctly. Vaccines are, however, not risk-free and adverse events will occasionally occur following vaccination. Public trust in vaccine safety is key to the success of vaccination programmes.
This module serves as an introduction to the whole course. You will learn about the importance of immunization programmes and how vaccines work. You will understand the relationship between vaccine coverage, adverse events and disease spread. You will also learn about the importance of vaccine regulations in ensuring the effectiveness of vaccine initiatives.
By the end of this module you should be able to:
- 1Explain the importance of VaccinationVaccinationInoculation with a vaccine for the purpose of inducing immunity. in the control of infectious diseases,
- 2Describe the basic principles of vaccination,
- 3Explain how the public are less tolerant of the risksRiskThe probability that an individual will experience a certain event during a defined period of time. associated with vaccinesVaccineA material containing live attenuated or inactivated (killed) microorganisms, or constituents of microorganisms, capable of eliciting protection against infection. (although very low) than they are of those associated with drugsDrug (or medicine)Any substance in a pharmaceutical product that is used to modify or exploit physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient. The term drug/medicinal product is used in a wider sense to include the whole formulated and registered product, including the presentation and packaging, and the accompanying information. Vaccines are drugs/medicines. used to treat disease,
- 4List the main types of vaccine and illustrate them with examples,
- 5Describe the importance of post marketing vaccine safety surveillance,
- 6Identify some vaccines that have been associated with adverse vaccine reactions.